Statistics

    Map

Twitter

Workplace Safety Culture Model [WSCM]: Presentation and Validation
( Vol-6,Issue-4,April 2019 ) OPEN ACCESS
Author(s):

Patrícia Amélia Tomei, Giuseppe Maria Russo

Keywords:

Organizational Culture, Safety Culture, Workplace Safety Culture.

Abstract:

The literature on Workplace Safety Culture (WSC) has evolved in the conceptual dimension in a movement away from technical aspects toward more human aspects, but remains incipient regarding the creation of measurement instruments and quantitative evaluation with a totality of technological, organisational and human factors.To fill this gap, this article presents and validades the Workplace Safety Culture Model (WSCM) applied in a survey, with a total of 1196 operational employees of six factories, frommetallurgical sector. To validate the WSCM, the statistical procedure Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to reduce the set of variables to a lower number of factors to characterize the attribute dimensions of the object in question. The results presents a reduced version of the proposed model, distributed in ten factors: Leadership, Commitment, Pressure at Work, Infrastructure, Learning, Efficiency, Management System, Feedback, Responsibility,and Communication.The results of the EFA produced a factor structure with relatively higher loads on the appropriate factors. The WSCMoffers us a robust tool to analyze an organization's WSC maturity. For the methodological improvement of the model, we suggest future research with diverse cultural contexts.

ijaers doi crossref DOI:

10.22161/ijaers.6.4.3

Paper Statistics:
  • Total View : 33
  • Downloads : 10
  • Page No: 014-031
Cite this Article:
MLA
Patrícia Amélia Tomei et al ."Workplace Safety Culture Model [WSCM]: Presentation and Validation". International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science(ISSN : 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)),vol 6, no. 4, 2019, pp.014-031 AI Publications, doi:10.22161/ijaers.6.4.3
APA
Patrícia Amélia Tomei, Giuseppe Maria Russo(2019).Workplace Safety Culture Model [WSCM]: Presentation and Validation. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science(ISSN : 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)),6(4), 014-031. http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.6.4.3
Chicago
Patrícia Amélia Tomei, Giuseppe Maria Russo. 2019,"Workplace Safety Culture Model [WSCM]: Presentation and Validation". International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science(ISSN : 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)).6(4):014-031. Doi: 10.22161/ijaers.6.4.3
Harvard
Patrícia Amélia Tomei, Giuseppe Maria Russo. 2019,Workplace Safety Culture Model [WSCM]: Presentation and Validation, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science(ISSN : 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)).6(4), pp:014-031
IEEE
Patrícia Amélia Tomei, Giuseppe Maria Russo."Workplace Safety Culture Model [WSCM]: Presentation and Validation", International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science(ISSN : 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)),vol.6,no. 4, pp.014-031,2019.
Bibtex
@article {patríciaaméliatomei2019workplace,
title={Workplace Safety Culture Model [WSCM]: Presentation and Validation},
author={Patrícia Amélia Tomei, Giuseppe Maria Russo},
journal={International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science},
volume={6},
year= {2019},
}
Share:
References:

[1] Aksorn, T.;&Hadikusumo, B. H. W. (2008). Critical success factors influencing safety program performance in Thai construction projects. Safety Science, 46(4), 709-727.
[2] Anderson, M.(2005). Behavioural safety and major accidents: Silver bullet or shot in the dark? Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 83(B2): 109 –116.
[3] Antonsen, S. (2009). Safety Culture Assessment: A Mission Impossible? Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Volume 17, Number 4, December, 242-254.
[4] Bagozzi, R. P.; & Edwards, J. R. (1998). A general approach for representing constructs in organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 1, 45-87.
[5] Barbosa, L. (2010). National Culture andOrganizational Culture. ESPM Journal, 17 (2), 76-79
[6] Biggs, H.C.; Dinsdag, D.; Kirk, P. J.; & Cipolla, D. (2010) Safety culture research, lead indicators, and the development of safety effectiveness indicators in the construction sector. International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, 6(3), pp. 133-140
[7] Bourantas, D.; Anagnostelis, J.; Mantes, Y.; &Kafalas, A.G. (1990).Culture Gap in Greek Management. Organization Studies, 11(2), 261-283.
[8] Burke, M. J.;& Signal, S. M. (2010). Workplace Safety: A Multilevel, Interdisciplinary Perspective. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 29, 1–47.
[9] Chen, I.; & Li, H. (2010). Measuring patient Culture (safety culture in Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety HSOPSC), BMC Health Services Research, 10 (1), 1-10.
[10] Cheyne, A.; Oliver, A.; Tomas, J.M.; and Cox, S.(2002). The architecture of employee attitudes to safety in the manufacturing sector, Personnel Review, 31(6): 649 –670.
[11] Colla, J.; Bracken, A.; Kinney, L.;& Weeks, W. (2005). Measuring patient safety climate: A review of surveys. Quality & Safety in Health Care, 14(5), 364–366.
[12] Costello, A. B.;& Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10(7), 1-9.
[13] Carder B.; Ragan P.W. (2003). A survey-based system for safety measurement and improvement Journal of Safety Research 34,157–165
[14] Christian,M.S.; Bradley, J.C.; Wallace J.C.; &Burke M.J. (2009)Workplace safety: a meta- analysis of the roles of person and situation factors,Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, pp. 1103-1127
[15] Cox, S. J.; & Cox, T. (1991). The structure of employee attitudes to safety: European example. Work and Stress 5 (2), 93–106
[16] Cox, S.J.; Cheyne, A.J.T.(2000).Assessing safety culture in offshore environments. Safety Science,34, 111-129
[17] Cox, S.;& Jones, B. (2006). Behavioral safety and accident prevention: Short-term “fad” or sustainable “fix”? Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 84, 1–7
[18] Cooper, M. D. (2000). Towards a model of safety culture. Safety Science, 36, 111-136.
[19] Cooper, M.D.;& Finley L.J. (2013) Strategic Safety Culture Road Map. Franklin, IN: Be-Safe Management Solutions EvidenceInc. (BSMS).
[20] Cooper, M.D. (2016) Navigating the Safe Culture Construct: A Review of the Evidence, IN: Be-Safe Management Solutions Evidence Inc. (BSMS). Available at:http://www.behavioral-safety.com/articles/safety_culture_review.pdf. Accessed on: December 12, 2018.
[21] Clarke, S. (2010). An integrative model of safety climate: Linking psychological climate and work attitudes to individual safety outcomes using meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 83, 553–578.
[22] Clarke, S. (2013). Safety leadership: A meta-analytic review of transformational and transactional leadership styles as antecedents of safety behaviors, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86, 22–49
[23] Diaz, R. I.; & Cabrera, D. D. (1997). Safety climate and attitude as evaluation measures of organizational safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 29 (5), 643–650.
[24] Dieese. (2011). O Perfil do TrabalhadorMetalúrgico. Available at: http://www.ftmrs.org.br/arquivos/file_528a49a22344e.pdf. Accessed on: December 12, 2018.
[25] DeJoy, D. M.; Schaffer, B. S.; Wilson, M. G.; Vandenberg, R. J.;& Butts, M. M. (2004). Creating safer workplaces: Assessing the determinants and role of safety climate. Journal of Safety Research, 35(1), 81-90.
[26] Douglas, M.; &Wildavsky, A. (1983). Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technical and Environmental Dangers. Berkeley: University of California Press.
[27] DuPont Bradley Curve. (2019). Available at: www.dupont.com/products-and-services/consulting.../bradley-curve.htm. Accessed on: Feb 11, 2019.
[28] Ek, A.; Akselsson, R.; Arvidsson, M.;&Johansson, C.R. (2007). Safety culture in Swedish air traffic control. Safety Science 45, 791–811.
[29] Fabrigar, L. R.; Wegener, D. T.;MacCallum, R. C.;&Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4(3), 272-299.
[30] Fang, D. P.; Chen, Y.; & Louisa, W. (2006). Safety climate in construction industry: a case study in Hong Kong. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 132 (6), 573–584.
[31] Fleming, M.(2001). Safety Culture Maturity Model. Report 2000/049. Health and Safety Executive. Colegate, Norwich.
[32] Fleming, M., &Wentzell, N. (2008). Patient safety culture improvement tool (PSCIT): How the PSCIT was developed and guidelines for use. Healthcare Quarterly: Special Issue on Patient Safety, 11, 10–15
[33] Fleming, M.;& Scott, N. (2013). A regulator’s guide to safety culture and leadership. Technical report prepared for the Canada‐Nova Scotia Offshore petroleum board. Accessed on: https://apps.neb-one.gc.ca/REGDOCS/File/Accessed on: December 12, 2018.
[34] Fleming, M.;Harvey,K.;&Cregan, B. (2018). Safety culture research and practice: A review of 30 years of research collaboration. Journal of Applied BioBehavioral Research, 1-23
[35] Flin, R.; Mearns, K.; O'Connor, P.;&Bryden, R. (2000). Measuring safety climate: Identifying the common features. Safety Science, 34(1–3), 177–192.
[36] Flin, R. (2007). Measuring safety culture in healthcare: A case for accurate diagnosis. Safety Science, 45, 653-667.
[37] Fuchs, P. G.; Macedo-Soares, T. D. L. van A.; & Russo, G. M. (2009). Environmental practices and strategies assessment model: results of its application to the automotive and pulp & paper sectors in Brazil. Revista de Administração Pública, 43 (4), July/Aug.
[38] Gaba, D. M.; Singer, S. J.; Sinaiko, A. D.; Bowen, J. D.; &Ciavarelli, A. P. (2003). Differences in safety climate between hospital personnel and naval aviators. Human Factors 45(2), 173-185.
[39] Gibbons, A.; von Thaden, T.; &Wiegmann, D. (2006) Development and initial validation of a survey for assessing safety culture within commercial flight operations. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 16 (2), NJ: LEA.
[40] Glendon, A. I.; Stanton, N. A.;& Harrison, D.(1994). Factor analysing a performance shaping concepts questionnaire. In: Robertson, S.A. (Ed.), Contemporary Ergonomics 1994: Ergonomics for All. Taylor & Francis, London, pp. 340-345.
[41] Glendon, A. I.; Stanton, N.A. (2000). Perspectives on safety culture. Safety Science, 34 (1-3), 193-214.
[42] Glendon, A.I.;&Litherland, D.K. (2001).Safety climate factors, group differences and safety behavior in road construction, Safety Science 39,157-188.
[43] Grote G.; &Kunzler C. (2000) Diagnosis of safety culture in safety management audits, Safety Science 34,131-150.
[44] Guldenmund, F. W. (2000). The nature of safety culture: A review of theory and research. Safety Science, 34(1–3), 215– 257.
[45] Guldenmund, F. W. (2010). Understanding and exploring safety culture. Delft, Netherlands: Delft University of Technology.
[46] Guo, B.; &Yiu, T. (2015). Developing Leading Indicators to Monitor the Safety Conditions of Construction Projects, Journal of Management in Engineering, 32(1).
[47] Hair Jr., J. F.; Anderson, R. E.; Tatham, R. L.; & Black, W. C. (1998).Multivariate Data Analysis. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
[48] Hale, A. R. (2000). Culture’s confusions. Safety Science 34, 1–14.
[49] Halligan, M.;&Zecevic, A. (2011). Safety culture in healthcare: A review of concepts, dimensions, measures and progress. BMJ Quality & Safety, 20, 338–343.
[50] Hardy, C.;& Maguire, S. (2016).Organizing risk: Discourse, power and riskification. Academy of Management Review, 41 (1), 80–108.
[51] Henroid, D.; & Sneed, J. (2004). Readiness to implement hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems in Iowa schools, February, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 104 (2), 180–185.
[52] Hofmann, D. A.;&Mark, B. (2006). An Investigation of the Relationship between Safety Climate and Medication Errors as Well as Other Nurse and Patient Outcomes.Personnel Psychology, 59(4):847.
[53] Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London, UK: McGraw-Hill.
Health and Safety Executive - HSE. (2005). A review of safety culture and safety climate literature for the development of the safety culture inspection toolkit. Research Report 367. London, UK: HMSO.
[54] Huang, Y. H.;Ho, M.; Smith, G.S.; & Chen, P.Y.(2006). Safety climate and self-reported injury: assessing the mediating role of employee safety control. Accidents Analysis Preview, 38, 425–433
[55] Hutcheson, G. D.;&Sofroniou, N. (1999). The multivariate social scientist: Introductory statistics using generalized linear models. London: Sage Publications.
[56] Ismail F.; Ahmad N.;Janipha N. A. I.; & Ismail R. (2012) The Behavioural Factor’s Characteristics of Safety Culture. Journal of Asian Behavioural Studies, 2(4), 67-75.
[57] Jahn, J. L. (2016). Adapting Safety Rules in a High Reliability Context How Wildland Firefighting Workgroups Ventriloquize Safety Rules to Understand Hazards. Management. Communication Quarterly, 0893318915623638.
[58] Jiang, L.;& Probst, T. M. (2016). A multilevel examination of affective job insecurity climate on safety outcomes. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 21(3), 366-377.
[59] Johnson, G.; & Scholes, K. (1999). Exploring Corporate Strategy, 5th Edition. Prentice-Hall, Europe.
[60] Lee, J. E.; Almanza, B. A.; Jang, S.; Nelson, D. C.; &Ghiselli, R. F. (2012). Does transformational leadership style influence employees’ attitudes toward food safety practices? International Journal of Hospitality Management.December 15: 36-48.
[61] Lee, T.; & Harrison, K. (2000). Assessing safety culture in nuclear power stations. Safety Science, 34 (1-3), 61-97.
[62] Maguire, S.;& Hardy, C. (2013). Organizing processes and the construction of risk: A discursive approach. Academy of Management Journal, 56 (1), 231–255.
[63] McDonald, N.; Corrigan, S.; Daly, C.; &Cromie, S. (2000). Safety management systems and safety culture in aircraft maintenance organizations. Safety Science, 34(1-3), 151-176.
[64] Mearns, K.; Flin, R.; Gordon, R.; & Fleming, M. (1998). Measuring safety climate on offshore installations. Work & Stress 12 (3), 238-254.
[65] Mearns, K.; Whitaker S.M.; &Flin R. (2003). Safety climate, safety management practice and safety performance in offshore environments. Safety Science 41, 641–680
[66] Mearns, K.; Flin, R.; Gordon, R.; & Fleming, M. (2001). Human and Organizational Factor in Offshore Safety. Work and Stress, 15 (2): 144–60.
[67] Morrow, S.; Koves, K.;& Barnes, V. E. (2014). Exploring the relationship between safety culture and safety performance in U.S. nuclear power operations. Safety Science, 69, 37–47.
[68] Mullen J.;Kelloway, E. K.; & Teed M. (2017). Employer safety obligations, transformational leadership and their interactive effects on employee safety performance, Safety Science, 91,405–412
[69] Neal, A.; Griffin, M. A.; & Hart, P. M. (2000). The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior. Safety Science, 34 (1-3), 99–109
[70] Nielsen, K. J.; &Mikkelsen, K. L. (2007). Predictive factors for self-reported occupational injuries at 3 manufacturing plants. Safety Science Monitor, 11.
[71] Nielsen, K. J. (2014). Improving safety culture through the health and safety organization: A case study, Journal of Safety Research, 48, 7–17.
[72] Noroozi, A.;Khakzad, N. Khan, F.; MacKinnon, S.;&Abbassi, R. (2013). The role of human error in risk analysis: Application to pre-and post-maintenance procedures of process facilities. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 119, 251-258.
[73] O’Connor, S.;& Carlson, E. (2016). Safety Culture and Senior Leadership Behavior: Using negative ratings to align clinical staff and senior leadership. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 46(4):215-20.
[74] Ostrom, L.; Wilheimsen, C.;& Kaplan, B. (1993). Assessing Safety Culture. Nuclear Safety 34(2): p163-172
[75] Parker, D.; Lawrie, M.; & Hudson, P. (2006). A framework for understanding the development of organizational safety culture. Safety Science, 44, 551-562.
[76] Reiman, T.;&Rollenhagen, C.(2014). Does the concept of safety culture help or hinder systems thinking in safety? Accident Analysis&Prevention, 68, 5–15.
[77] Reason, J. (1998) Achieving a Safe Culture: theory and practice. Work & Stress,12 (3), 293-306.
[78] El-nagar, R.; Hosny, H.;&Askar, H. S. (2015).Development of a Safety Performance Index for Construction Projects in Egypt. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture,3(5):182-192.
[79] Rundmo, T.; &Hale, A.R.(2003). Managers’ attitudes towards safety and accident prevention,Safety Science,41, 557-574.
[80] Sass, D. A.;& Schmitt, T. A. (2010). A comparative investigation of rotation criteria within exploratory factor analysis. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 45(1), 73-103.
[81] Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational Culture and Leadership. 2nd Ed., San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
[82] Sijtsma, K. (2009). On the use, the misuse, and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach’s alpha.Psychometrika, 74(1), 107-120.
[83] Sexton, J. B.;Helmreich, R. L.; Neilands, T. B.; Rowan, K.; Vella, K.; Boyden, J.; Roberts, P. R.; & Thomas, E. J. (2006).The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties, Benchmarking Data, and Emerging Research. BMC Health Services Research;6:44
[84] Seo, D. C. (2005). An explicative model of unsafe work behavior. Journal of Safety Research, 43, 187−211.
[85] Seo, D. C.; Torabi, M. R.; Blair, E. H.;& Ellis, N. T. (2004). A crossvalidation of safety climate scale using confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Safety Research, 35, 427−445.
[86] Silva, S.; Lima, M. L.; &Conceição, B., (2004). OSCI: an organizational and safety inventory. Safety Science, 42, 205-220.
[87] Singer, S. J.; Gaba, D. M.; Geppert, J. J.; Sinaiko, A. D.; Howard, S. K.; & Park, K. C. (2003). The Culture of Safety: Results of an Organization-Wide Survey in 15 California Hospitals. Quality and Safety in Healthcare, 12: 112–18.
[88] Sorensen, J. N. (2002). Safety culture: a survey of the state-of-the-art. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 76, 189-204.
[89] Smith, G. S.; Huang, Y. H.; Ho, M.; & Chen, P. Y. (2006). The relationship between safety climate and injury rates across industries: The need to adjust for injury hazards. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 38(3), 556-562.
[90] Sneed, J.&Henroid, D. (2007). Impact of educational interventions on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) program implementation in Iowa Schools. Journal of Child Nutrition and Management, 30 (1), 45-58.
[91] Stewart, J. M. (1999).Managing for World Class Safety. Report on research on the Management of Safety. Toronto: Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, Canada.
[92] Tabachnick, B. G. &Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics (5th. ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
[93] Taylor, J. (2011). An exploration of food safety culture in a multi-cultural environment: Next steps? Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 3, 455-466.
[94] Transport Canada. (2007). Stronger Ties – A Shared Commitment to Railway Safety – A Review of the Railway Safety Act, November 2007.Available at: www.tc.gc.ca/media/documents/railsafety/TRANSPORT_Stronger_Ties_Report_FINAL_e.pdf. Accessed on: November 12, 2018.
[95] Tzannatos, E.; &Kokotos, D. (2009). Analysis of accidents in Greek shipping during the pre-and post-ISM period. Marine Policy, 33(4), 679-684
[96] Wallace, J. C.;& Chen, G. (2006). A multilevel integration of personality, climate, self-regulation, and performance. Personnel Psychology, 59, 529 –557.
[97] Wiegmann, D.; Zhang, H.; von Thaden, T.; Gibbons, A.; & Sharma, G. (2004). Safety culture: An integrative review. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 14 (2): 117-134.
[98] Williams, B.; Onsman, A.; & Brown, T. (2010). Exploratory factor analysis: A five-step guide for novices. Journal of Emergency Primary Health Care (JEPHC), 8 (3), 1-13.
[99] Wu, T.C.;Chen, C.H.; Li, C.C.(2008). A correlation among safety leadership, safety climate and safety performance Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries,Volume 21, Issue 3, 307-318.
[100] Van Nunen, K., Reniers, G., Ponnet, K. (2018). Measuring and improving safety culture in organizations: An exploration of tools developed and used in Belgium. Journal of Risk Research, vol.21, issue 5, p.622-644.
[101] Van Nunen, K., Li, J., Reniers, G., &Ponnet, K. (2017). Bibliometric analysis of safety culture research. Safety Science, 108,248–258.
[102] Varonen, U.; &Mattila, M. (2000). The safety climate and its relationship to safety practices, safety of the work environment and occupational accidents in eight wood-processing companies. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 32(6), 761-769.
[103] Vredenburgh, A.G. (2002). Organizational safety: Which management practices are most effective in reducing employee injury rates? Journal of Safety Research,33, 259-276.
[104] Zohar, D. (1980). Safety Climate in Industrial Organizations: Theoretical and Applied Implications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65 (1), 96-102
[105] Zohar, D. (2000). A group-level model of safety climate: Testing the effect of group climate on micro accidents in manufacturing jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85 (4), 587-596.
[106] Zohar, D.;& Luria, G. (2003). The use of supervisory practices as leverage to improve safety behavior: a cross level intervention model. Journal of Safety Research, 34, 567−577.