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Vol.-3, Issue-3, March 2016

Sr No. Paper Detail
1. Task Allocation in Intermittently Connected Mobile Cloud Systems

Author- G. Pranusha , N. Veerapandiyan
Abstract- The rise of portable distributed computing empowers versatile clients to offload applications to close-by versatile asset rich gadgets (i.e., cloudlets) to lessen vitality utilization and enhance execution. Be that as it may, because of versatility and cloudlet limit, the associations between a portable client and versatile cloudlets can be discontinuous. Subsequently, offloading moves made by the versatile client might fizzle (e.g., the client moves out of correspondence scope of cloudlets). In this paper, we build up an ideal offloading calculation for the portable client in such an irregularly associated cloudlet framework, considering the clients nearby load and accessibility of cloudlets. We look at clients' portability designs and cloudlets' affirmation control, and infer the likelihood of effective offloading activities logically. We plan and tackle a Markov choice procedure (MDP) model to acquire an ideal approach for the versatile client with the target to minimize the calculation and offloading costs. Moreover, we demonstrate that the ideal approach of the MDP has an edge structure. In this manner, we present a quick calculation for vitality compelled clients to settle on offloading choices. The numerical results demonstrate that the scientific type of the fruitful offloading likelihood is a decent estimation in different versatility cases. Besides, the proposed MDP offloading calculation for portable clients beats ordinary gauge plans.
Keywords- Markov choice procedure, offloading, versatile client.
Page No.- 1-5

2. Drying Characteristics of Lime (Citrus aurantifolia [Christm.] Swingle) at Different Temperatures

Author- Shanika Dedunu Kumari, H.M.S.P.Bandaranayake
Abstract- Drying rate of lime was determined experimentally as a function of drying temperature. Single layer drying data obtained at four different temperatures (45, 60, 70 and 100ºC) were fitted to the logarithmic drying model. The drying process was conducted until the moisture content reaching up to 8% d.b. at different drying temperatures. According the results, the rate of drying changed with the drying temperature. Drying time for reaching 8 % d.b. moisture contents of lime were 27, 38, 371 and 825 hours at drying temperatures of 100, 70, 60 and 45°C respectively. Drying lime at observed temperatures can be considered as drying in a falling rate period and the equilibrium moisture content varied with the drying temperature of lime.
Keywords- Drying, Equilibrium Moisture Content, Logarithmic Drying Model, Moisture Content, Temperature.
Page No.- 6-8

3. Comparative study of different materials used for manufacturing of an automobile body

Author- Abhijeet Maharnwar, Sarath Nair, Dr. Dhananjay Dolas
Abstract- The fast growing demand for more fuel-efficient vehicles to reduce energy consumption and air pollution is a challenge for the automotive industry. The weight reduction is considered as a leading key in upgrading the fuel economy. The Varity of different materials can be found within vehicle body including steel, magnesium alloys, plastics alloys and aluminium alloys .Aluminium alloy is more significant as compared to other material because of strength, weight and anti-corrosion as well as cost wise the aluminium alloy material cost is less than carbon fibre reinforced plastics. The objective of this paper is comparative study of different materials uses for manufacturing the automobile body and their performance. This study is useful to understand different materials performance in automobile body and their benefits. This study is an attempt to cover all variety of up-to date body materials, and highlight the most promising of them for volume production was committed on small scale industry.
Keywords- Steel, Aluminum, CFRP & Weight reduction.
Page No.- 9-13

4. Sisel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Author- KunamineniVijay, Chintha Umamaheswar
Abstract- Concrete is strong in compression and weak in tension. So we will provide the reinforcement to the concrete. Majorly steel is used as the reinforcement. Many of the researches are in progress to find a substitute to this material. Many investigations proposed artificial fibres. In this project we would like to take the naturally available fibre named sisal fibre is taken as a substitute material to the reinforcement and studied the properties. The results show that the composites reinforced with sisal fibres are reliable materials to be used in practice for the production of structural elements to be used in rural and civil construction. This material could be a substitute to the steel reinforcement which production is a serious hazard to human and animal health and is prohibited in industrialized countries. The production of sisal fibres as compared with synthetic fibres or even with mineral asbestos fibres needs much less energy in addition to the ecological, social and economical benefits.
Keywords- Concrete, Sisel Fibre, strength, Durability
Page No.- 14-18

5. Review of Face Recognition Technology Using Feature Fusion Vector

Author- Shrutika Shukla, Prof. Anuj Bhargav, Prof. Prashant Badal
Abstract- Facial recognition Technology has evolved into a successful technology. Recognition algorithm, have been reviewed in this paper. PCA, LDA, EBG Matching, Multi linear sub linear applying tensor representation and neural network based dynamic link matching are being used commonly.
Keywords- PCA, Viola-Jones, Edge Detection, Face Detection and Fusion Method.
Page No.- 19-22

6. Risk of Cyber Attacks in the Network Systems of a State University in Eastern Visayas, Philippines: A Case Study

Author- Lowell A. Quisumbing
Abstract- Computer network security plays a vital role in the information and communication technology (ICT) environment. This study investigates the status of the existing network security, potential risks, and the possible solutions to the existing network problems. The descriptive research design was used using a survey questionnaire as its main instrument in the conduct of the study. Findings reveal that the current status of the network security of the State University needs improvement as it handles complex information and is important in the university’s day-to-day transactions. The university needs to undergo intensive evaluation and system analyses to ensure that their operation will not be hampered by malicious software or cyber hackers.
Keywords- Network Security, Cyber Attacks, State University, Information Systems, Security Status.
Page No.- 23-29

7. Effective Bug Assortment Using Data Reduction Techniques

Author- Swati Jain,Swapna Rose Wilson
Abstract- Software companies spend over 48% of their total cost to fix the bugs. An effective way to automatically fix the bugs to the correct developer is called Bug Triage or Bug Assortment. Data sets containing the bug reports are collected from two large open source projects like Mozilla and Firefox. These projects consist of open source bug repositories. Bug repositories are large repositories which stores all the details of bugs. The details are stored in the form of a bug report. These bug report are saved as a document and a related developer is mapped to the label of the document. Software companies spend most of their total cost in fixing these bugs. In bug repositories the two main challenges faced is the large quantity of the data set and the low quality. Noise and redundancy are the main cause for the low quality of the data set. However, irrespective of all these difficulties assigning a proper developer to fix the bug is not an easy task without knowing the actual class of the bug. In this paper we propose data reduction technique which reduces the high scale of the data but it retains the quality of the data set. We also propose domain wise bug solution.
Keywords- Bug, Bug Assortment, Dataset, Bug Repositories.
Page No.- 30-33

8. The Consensus Clustering as a Contribution to Parental Recognition Problem Based on Hand Biometrics

Author- Lucia Sousa
Abstract- The clustering analysis is a subject that has been interesting researchers from several areas, such as health (medical diagnosis, clustering of proteins and genes), marketing (market analysis and image segmentation), information management (clustering of web pages). The clustering algorithms are usually applied in Data Mining, allowing the identification of natural groups for a given data set. The use of different clustering methods for the same data set can produce different groups. So, several studies have been led to validate the resulting clusters. There has been an increasing interest on how to determine a consensus clustering that combines the different individual clusterings, reflecting the main structure in clusters inherent to each of them, as a perspective to get a higher quality clustering. As several techniques of consensus clustering have been researched, the present work focuses on problem of finding the best partition in the consensus clustering. We analyze the most referred techniques in literature, the consensus clustering techniques with different mechanisms to achieve the consensus, i.e.; Voting mechanisms; Co-association matrix; Mutual Information and hyper-graphs; and a multi-objective consensus clustering existing on literature. In this paper we discuss these approaches and a comparative study is presented, that considers a set of experiments using two-dimensional synthetic data sets with different characteristics, as number of clusters, their cardinality, shape, homogeneity and separability, and a real-world data set based on hand's biometrics shape, in context of people parental recognition. With this data we intend to investigate the ability of the consensus clustering algorithms in correctly cluster a child and her/his parents. This has an enormous business potential leading to a great economic value, since that with this technology a website can match data, as hand's photographs, and say if A and B are related somehow. We conclude that, in some cases, the multi-objective technique proved to outperform the other techniques, and unlike the other techniques, is little influenced by poor clustering even in situations like noise introduction and clusters with different homogeneity or overlapped. Furthermore, shows that can capture the performance of the best base clustering and still outperform it. Regarding to real data, no technique was capable of identifying a person's mother/father. However, the research of distances between hands from a person and its father, mother, siblings, can retrieve the probability of that person being his/her familiar. This doesn't enable the identification of relatives but instead, decreases the size of database for seeking the matches.
Keywords- Consensus clustering, Hand biometrics, Hand geometry recognition, Hierarchical clustering algorithm, Validation. .
Page No.- 34-43

9. An approach of anomaly, Outlier Detection in Security Applications

Author- Namrata Verma, Dr Nitin Mishra
Abstract- Notwithstanding the big amount of data being accrued in lots of scientific and business programs, specific occasions of pastimes are nevertheless pretty rare. Those uncommon events, very often known as outliers or anomalies, are described as activities that occur very every so often (their frequency stages from 5% to less than 0.01% relying at the application). Detection of anomalies (outliers or uncommon activities) has these days gained a lot of attention in many security domain names, ranging from video surveillance and protection systems to intrusion detection and fraudulent transactions. Website protection (also referred to as web utility protection, or webappsec) is a extensive subject, however most web sites have commonplace security issues that want to be addressed, no matter the precise technologies used or capabilities deployed.
Keywords- webappsec, anomalies, security, web application
Page No.- 44-51

10. Study on Design and Optimization of vehicle crush box for reduced damageability and repair costs

Author- Dr. Chandrashekhar Bendigeri, Supreeth Kalburgi
Abstract- The Indian automotive buyer is very cost-conscious and the hence auto manufacturers are striving to bring in low cost of ownership with high fuel economy. Other than Initial cost and fuel consumption of the vehicle, damaged parts replacement and reparability of the vehicle is one of the major concerns of the customers. In cities, as the traffic density increases, low speed accidents are commonplace. Low speed impacts may cause significant vehicle damage and injuries to the occupants. In a low speed impact, the vehicle must withstand the crash with minimal damage so that repair costs remain low. Most of the vehicles on Indian road, mainly in entry and mid segment level cars don’t have the rear bumper beam as well the crush boxes. Automakers eliminate the crush box and rear impact beam mainly to reduce the product cost, as rear impact safety norm is not a part of Indian automotive safety regulation. The purpose of the project is to make customer, manufacturer and regulation body aware the importance of having the crush box and rear impact beam in the vehicle, in India mainly in metropolitan cities lots of vehicle collisions occur at a low speed because of increase in traffic densityAs crashing of actual vehicle to design a crush box is not cost effective, CAE tools like Hypermesh, Primer, Ansa are used for FE modelling and model assembly. Ls Dyna Explicit solver is used to simulate the real time crash event.
Keywords- Low speed impact, Crush box, FE Modelling, Implicit Solver
Page No.- 52-55

11. Efficient Method for Preventing Password Sniffing Using MD5 Algorithm

Author- Vikram Singh, Manoj Kumar, Lekh Raj
Abstract- Internet usage is increasing day by day. Online financial (cash) transactions are increasing day by day like online Banking, online shopping etc With Such increased internet transactions, the need for the security also arises as hackers are being active to have access the private information like user id/Password, credit card no, pin etc. The objective of sniffing is to steal Password (E mail, FT, SQL Telnet, Web Etc), Email text etc. This paper focused on how to detect and prevent Password Sniffing on web applications using MD5 Algorithm encryption technique. The goal of this paper is to provide improved security by developing a method which prevents illegal access to the web applications.
Keywords- Sniffing, Password attacks, password sniffing, MD5 Algorithm.
Page No.- 56-60

12. Habitual Booking System for LPG with Leakage and Fire Sensing Sanctuary

Author- Mr. M. Joshua Vinoth, Mr. S. P. Santhoshkumar, Ms. G. Maria Dhyana Latha, Dr. V. Sujatha
Abstract- The design of a wireless LPG leakage monitoring system is proposed for home safety. The aim of this paper is to monitor for LPG leakage to avoid fire accidents providing house safety feature where security has been an important issue and alerts the consumer about the leak by SMS and as an emergency measure the system will turn off the power supply, while activating the alarm. In this paper we proposed the additional advantage of the system is that it continuously monitors the level of the LPG present in the cylinder using load sensor and if the gas level reaches below the threshold limit of gas around 2kg so that the user can replace the old cylinder with new in time and automatically books the cylinder using a GSM module. The device ensures safety and prevents suffocation and explosion due to gas leakage. We have also included DC battery in the system to operate even when the power goes off due to the power cut.
Keywords- Monitoring System, LPG leakage, Fire Sensing, GSM Module, DC battery, Booking System.
Page No.- 61-65

13. Estimation and Analysis of Channel Distortion and Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) in MIMO-OFDM Systems

Author- Dr. Rakesh Singhai, Priyanshu Gupta
Abstract- Wireless communication is a key area of research with increasing demand of high data rate applications at a low cost. Multiple input multiple output - orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) is the most promising technology for high spectral efficiency and for very high data throughput. Despite of being an emerging technology, it has to face a major challenge of carrier frequency offset (CFO) error, which causes inter carrier interference that ultimately leads to loss of orthogonality. This paper provides an intuitive knowledge of the concept used in the estimation of Channel distortion and CFO.
Keywords- CFO, FFT, IFFT, MIMO, MSE, OFDM, SNR.
Page No.- 66-72

14. The Effect of User Charges on Access to Basic Education in Kenya

Author- Amunga Jane, Ondigi Benjamin
Abstract- In Kenya, the right to free basic education was enshrined by law in 2003 and expanded to include secondary schools under the new constitution. The Basic Education Act allows schools to impose other levies with the approval of the Cabinet Secretary in consultation with the County Education Board provided that no child is denied education because of failure to pay such charges. However, this has not been the case. In practice, there are a large number of different "fees" that households have to pay for publicly provided primary and secondary education, including tuition fees, compulsory uniforms, Parent Teacher Association (PTA) dues, and various special fees such as exam fees, and the like which have kept school age going children out of school. These fees are especially difficult for marginalized children such as females, orphans, and the financially underprivileged. For as long as many children of school going age still remain out of school, the achievement of vision 2030 remains a mirage since education and training of all Kenyans is an important ingredient under the social pillar in the realization of this vision. It is therefore recommended that, the government should meet the full costs of boarding in secondary schools in order to redress the imbalance between low and high social economic status families, provide adequate teaching and learning resources in public primary, and review the current capitation grant at both sub-sectors.
Keywords- User charges, access, basic education, marginalized and capitation grant.
Page No.- 73-78

15. Design of Face Recognition System Using Viola-Jones and GLD Method

Author- Shrutika Shukla, Prof. Anuj Bhargav, Prof. Prashant Badal
Abstract- Face recognition systems are the need of time. We have applied de-noising technique and GLD method in conjunction with Viola-Jones, PCA-ANN and achieved recognition rate beyond expectation.
Keywords- PCA, Viola-Jones, GLD Method, Median Filter.
Page No.- 79-84

16. A survey on Malware, Botnets and their detection

Author- Harvinder Singh, Anchit Bijalwan
Abstract- The use of Internet and its related services is increasing day by day. Many million people everyday surf net and use it for various reasons. With so much use of internet, the threats related to security are the major concern of today. There are many security concerns or threats faced by the net surfers and that is because of malwares which have many forms such as viruses, worms, trojans horses, rootkits, botnets and various other forms of data attacks. Among all the threats mentioned above, botnet seems to be quite prevalent now days. It has already spread its roots in Wide Area Network (WAN) such as Internet and continuously spreading at very high pace. Botnet is a network of computers where the computers are infected by installing in them a harmful program. Each computer as a part of Botnet is called a bot or zombie. A Botnet is remotely controlled by a person who commands and controls the bots through a server called command and control sever(C&C). Such person who commands the bots is called a botmaster or bot herder. This paper is written to serve the objective to perform an extensive study of core problem that is the study and detection of Botnets.This paper focuses on the study of malwares where special emphasis is put on botnets and their detection.
Keywords- Botnets, HTTP, IRC, Malware, P2P, Spam.
Page No.- 85-90

17. A Review of ECG Signal De-noising and Peaks Detection Techniques

Author- Soniya Dandotiya, Prof. Manoj Ramaiya
Abstract- The Modern era is marked by tension and, therefore, heart is in trouble. Whole of the world is busy making research in ECG techniques. on Electrocardiogram and its feature extraction is the area of interest.. Analysis and classification let the medical professional to detect the heart ailments and other diseases. In our research method for De-noising of ECG signal and Feature extraction Algorithm is proposed. We considered the baseline wander problem in ECG signal which is basically due to the measurement error. This work involves the IIR filter Savitzky-Golay filter and Wavelet Transform. ECG signal is de-noised without affecting any information from ECG. We have also designed a feature Extraction algorithm which automatically detects the RR interval and QRS interval along with the amplitude of Q, R, and S. The whole algorithm including the de-noising of signal and Feature extraction. This work has been simulated on the MATLab software.
Keywords- ECG, Wavelet transform, Matlab, Feature Extraction.
Page No.- 91-93

18. Critical Appraisal by students on faculty-Issues and feedback

Author- Dr. N. R. Ananthanarayanan, Dr. M. Kannan
Abstract- The changing scenario of higher education in India need to attract student for higher education by offering unique and innovative courses and subjects along with the association of career orientation. In this aspect, the needs of tailor made courses with modern technological support are inevitable for the promotion of higher education in India. In this aspect, the course purview of computer education either in engineering, testing and application needs to add value oriented courses frequently in their syllabi and also to promote with the focus of career growth and employment. In addition to that the promotion of courses with latest modus operandi demands the institution to market its value through infrastructure support, equipment and software utilization and also content delivery through faculty. In this aspect, the present day student community propels to give their feedback on course value and subject delivery system by faculty then and there. By keeping this view as focus the present research paper has been attempted to verify and collect the opinion of students about the promotion of courseware and subject delivery pattern and also attempted to understand the discriminating factor on course selection and subject delivery evaluation made by different categories of students in an educational institution.
Keywords- Higher education, Course, Subject, Faculty.
Page No.- 94-98

19. Priority Analysis on technical teaching faculty over the selection of ICT based Seminars, Conferences, Workshop and Symposium for their career prospective

Author- Dr.M.Kannan, J.Sujatha , Dr.N.R.Ananthanarayanan
Abstract- Knowledge gaining and dissemination of knowledge among the learning community through Information and Communication Technology is an important elements for the growth any educational economy. In modern competitive learning system, a learner is an academician, scholar and students need to attend the process of learning away from formal process and where in which an informal way of learning, understanding, contact development, knowledge of professionalism is gained by both providers and learners. In this way the need of workshop, seminars, conferences, symposium gains momentum among the learning fraternity. Based on these reasons, the government and the knowledge disseminating agencies are also bringing these arrangements under mandatory process and which influx the learners to learn the areas where they want excel and expertise. But it is point that has to be addressed through proper research forum about the expectations of the learners. The present study aims to address about the expectations of the learners from the various forms of learning arrangements like workshop, seminars, and conferences and so on, the reasons to attend, the level of satisfaction about the various attributes related to the knowledge sharing events, ways and means to improve those activities from Sample Unit [N=37] drawn from Teaching Professionals and Research Scholars working in private university located in Kanchipuram.
Keywords- Knowledge gaining, Information and Communication Technology, Expectations, Learners.
Page No.- 99-103

20. Low Power Full Adder Implementation Based on Pass Transistor Technology

Author- Kiruthiga S, Abirami G, Gowsalya T, Kanimozhi K
Abstract- Addition is a fundamental for all the arithmetic operation, it is mainly used in digital signal processing architecture and microprocessor. The sum module is the core of arithmetic operation, like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division. The aim of the project is design of full adder having low power consumption and low power delay. In this project, a new hybrid 1-bit full adder is designed using both CMOS and pass transistor logic, for the purpose of reducing the no of transistors. It consists of three modules such as two XOR module and one MUX module. It is used to improving power delay product (PDP). This can be implemented by using the software Tanner EDA.
Keywords- CMOS logic,MUX module, Pass transistor logic,Power delay product, Tanner EDA XOR module.
Page No.- 104-107

21. Web Server Based Secure Real Time Embedded System for ATM

Author- Ms. Snehal Amber Ahire, Prof. D.D. Dighe
Abstract- The project designing and of existing ATM's are not much secure in favor of customer and users. Now a days the trends of mobile banking and mobile account accessing is grows up. ATMs have become very popular with the general public for their availability and general user friendliness. ATMs are now found in many locations having a regular or high volume of consumer traffic. These type of devices are useful for customers and banks too. The technology adopted and revised daily to made it possible to embed more facilities in mobile phones. But the major problem of bank transaction is security. The Secure cash or amount transaction is of serious major problem as concern in growing use of cash cards and internet transactions. However there is lots of limitations regarding design, flexibility, security and much more. In this project will introduce the concept of physical data accessing and development of ATM system that will allow customers to use mobile phones to Access and case transaction from ATM machines.
Keywords- PIC microcontroller, alert module, data transferring, image recognition system, voice chip.
Page No.- 108-112

22. Tuning of PID controller using Fuzzy Logic controller & Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm

Author- Er. Kuljinder Singh Khaira, Dr. Gursewak Singh Brar
Abstract- Proportional integral derivative controller tuning is an area of interest for researchers in many disciplines of science and engineering. Work presented in this based on Fuzzy Logic Controller and Bacterial Foraging Optimization Techniques. The proposed techniques are applied to the problem of PID controller tuning and is compared. It is observed that Bacterial Foraging Optimization technique gives a better result.
Keywords- PID, fuzzy logic controller, Bacterial Foraging, Control Actions.
Page No.- 113-116

23. Online Education and its Effect on the workforce

Author- Adnan Omar, Udochukwu Tasie, Muhammed Miah
Abstract- The use of technology in education, commonly defined as electronic learning (e-learning), is commonplace in the curricula of the 21st century. The role of e-learning in professional development and workforce advancement, and more specifically, its impact on Louisiana's workforce, was analyzed. Broader statewide efforts to address barriers and challenges that impact local adult learning opportunities are also examined. This paper also reviews the benefits of online education as it impacts on students, institutions, state and federal government, and the society in its entirety. Two models are proposed: the first addresses outreach programs to improve enrollment and retention of adult students; the second discusses methodologies to ensure the successful implementation of online programs to help those adult students to succeed.
Keywords- E-learning, enrollment, online education, retention, workforce.
Page No.- 117-127

24. Community App - Mobile Application

Author- Adnan Omar, Anmalu Ambika, Ghasem S. Alijani
Abstract- While the cost of a new item is usually given, the resale value of that item is often unknown. Pricing of resale items varies tremendously, often resulting in serious losses to the seller if the item is underpriced or to the buyer if the item is overpriced. To avoid this, an accurate understanding of depreciation is necessary. An asset's value declines over time due to use, wear and tear, and obsolescence. Known as depreciation, this decline is systematic: the net value of an item is adjusted periodically. A used item's net value, therefore, is the original purchase price less the accumulated reduction of value. Understanding this helps individuals or companies to manage the cost of assets and accurately estimate their book value at the end of each year of their useful life. Unfortunately, most individuals and companies lack the detailed knowledge necessary to accurately calculate depreciation. The objective of this study is to develop an application to accurately and rapidly determine the fair price of tangible assets using the sum of the year's digit depreciation method. The application will help individuals and companies to evaluate used items, whether for purchase or for sale, cost-effectively, accurately, and rapidly.
Keywords- Asset value, Depreciation, Fair price, Mobile App, Useful life.
Page No.- 128-134

25. Influence mechanism of the rubbing of drilling pipe for the stability of hole wall

Author- HAN Xiao-ming, LUO Chen-xu, WANG Shi-feng
Abstract- The hole wall appears because of the gas drainage of the coal seam, the hole wall is divided for the elastic area and plastic area, according to the elastic mechanics and rock mechanics established borehole wall stress model, caused by gas drilling secondary stress makes the hole wall instability are analyzed, also on the borehole wall by drill pipe contact friction caused by hole wall instability mechanism was studied and obtained the main reason which causing the borehole wall instability is the impact of drill pipe.
Keywords- drill pipe, gas extraction, hole wall instability.
Page No.- 135-138

26. A Survey on the Application of Image Processing Techniques on Palm leaf Manuscripts

Author- R.Vasanth Kumar Mehta, D.Thulasi Krishna,M.DilliPrasanth Reddy, Y.Keerthi
Abstract- When the transmission of written knowledge was not effective enough, the value of that knowledge to society can be taught by the care and elegance of its recording(Manuscripts).Not just events, recordings of history includes teachings, interpretations and narrations, Teachings of great sages who came out of compassion for people, gathered them and taught them what the ancient seers taught, what had been passed down the generations through the Manuscript Teachings. In order to preserve these precious knowledge to mankind which are being damaged by aging or due to several other reasons they have to be digitized for future use. Manuscripts being a precious base of knowledge should be protected. Image processing over the past decade has undergone various developments, Many Image Processing techniques have been introduced for an efficient Data Retrieval such as Image Enhancement, Image Segmentation and Image Acquisition. All these techniques have various schemes in order to process the images and get the desired results. Here in this paper we discuss about few techniques proposed by various authors that help us in Enhancing, Assessing, Improvising and providing access to manuscript images for successful data retrieval.
Keywords- Cultural heritage, Image processing, Image enhancement, Image segmentation, Character segmentation, Line segmentation, Color system transformation, Document analysis, Boundary tracing, Fourier descriptors, Shape similarity measure, Tree-search, Virtualization, OCR.
Page No.- 139-148